An overview of Titanium 6AL-4V
Ti-6AL-4V is a kind of titanium alloy sometimes referred to as Ti64 or TC4. Its UNS designation is R56400. Ti-6AL-4V is considered an alpha-beta titanium alloy with high resistance to corrosion and a high strength-to-weight ratio. It is widely available as it is one of the most commonly used forms of this alloy where corrosion resistance is a necessity and where low densities lend to superb engineered results in final products. That combination is exactly why Ti-6AL-4V is a favored material in the aerospace industry. It also performs well for biomechanical applications such as in the development of prostheses and implants.
The history of titanium alloys generally starts in the 1950s. In particular, the Watertown Arsenal during this time began to research the use of titanium alloys in armors. The Watertown Arsenal would then later become part of the Army Research Laboratory. The 6AL-4V alloy that was generated was later classified as Grade 5. By the end of 1947, there had only been about two tons of titanium produced annually. With some government incentives and drive for more aerospace development, that number reached more than two million pounds annually in 1953. It was perfect timing, at the dawn of the space age, and soon mass-production became the norm for not just this particular line of titanium alloy or even metal for that matter. Eventually, different specifications were generated for the industries that use this alloy product. Those specifications are codified often under AMS 4904, AMS 4911, AMS 4928, AMS 4965, MIL-T-9046, MIL-T 9047, BMS 7-269, DMS1570, and DMS 1583.
Chemistry of Titanium 6AL-4VThe chemistry of this alloy consists of Vanadium (V), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N), Hydrogen (H), Yttrium (Y), and Titanium (Ti). The percentage of these compounds by weight have a minimum to maximum range as follows: V (3.5% to 4.5%), Al (5.5% to 6.75%), Fe (up to 0.3%), O (up to 0.2%), C (up to 0.08%), N (up to 0.05%), H (up to 0.015%), Y (up to 0.005%), and Ti (up to the balance of 100%). The alloy also typically is in an alpha form, meaning it contains an hcp crystal structure (the close packing of equal spheres) with a space group of P63/mmc, or a beta form, meaning t contains a bcc crystal structure (body-centered cubic) with a space group of Im to 3m. The condition of heat treatment on these allies will influence their mechanical properties, as will the other properties of the material, t is possible to assess the typical behavior of the titanium alloy. It is worth noting the importance of different materials on different phases, too, as the alpha phase is stabilized by aluminum whereas the beta phase finds its stabilization with vanadium.
Ti64 is known for having a relatively low thermal conductivity when held at room temperature. This thermal conductivity is estimated at 6.6 W/m·K. The density is estimated as typically between 4.429 and 4.512 g/cm3; Young's Modulus falls between 104 and 113 GPa; the shear modulus ranges from 40 to 45 GPa; the bulk modulus comes n at 96.8 to 153 GPa; Poisson's Ratio Yield Stress is 0.31 to 0.37 MPa in tensile; the ultimate stress, on the other hand, is 880 to 920 MPa in tensile; the hardness is rated at a typical 36 (Rockwell C), and uniform elongation ranges from 5 to 18%. Furthermore, Ti-6Al-4V can be heat treated so that the alpha and beta phases' microstructures in the alloy vary differently. These heat processes used are duplex annealing, mill annealing, and solution treating plus aging. The specifications for this alloy include UNS R56400, AMS Standard 4911, and ASTM Standard F1472. Besides T64's use in biomechanics and aerospace applications (including for parts in Boeing 787 aircraft), the material is useful for racing components, marine applications, gas turbines, additive manufacturing, and the chemical industry as a whole.
These titanium plates come in a variety of forms that are useful for cutting to shape. A variety of thicknesses can be used in a structural setting. Their sizes, mostly due to their thickness, makes them less ideal for bending or shaping them in any other way apart from simply cutting them to size. Useful for even high-speed jets, these plates can be easily made into the moving parts for a plane or cut for making propellers and other thin pieces. In terms of a Ti64 plate option, we have the following:
Availability: • 6AL - 4V: 4911 / 9046 / 9046J AB-1 / Type III Comp C / 1592
Similar to a plate, a sheet of this alloy will come in a multitude of grades and thicknesses depending on the application and specifications. Due to the nature of this alloy and its inherent strength, it is more ideal to cut a sheet the same way a plate would be cut for application in many projects. Sheets, however, may be useful for bending and shaping in a way to create a skin on an aircraft or submarine, for example, as this form of the alloy - the form of a titanium sheet - is more likely to be the most flexible and ductile out of the other products out on the market today. In terms of a Ti64 sheet option, we have the following:
Availability: • 6AL - 4V: 4911 / 9046A / 9046J AB-1 / Type III Comp C / 1592 / 265
These bars are useful for many reasons, regulated in size for easy transport, storage, and machining. Bars are formed by hot forging followed by a sequence of hot rolling, polishing the material, machining, extrusion, casting, welding, and even spinning the materials for aerospace, automotive, agricultural, dental and medical, and food processing use, amongst more. Titanium bars deliver quality bulk material for further refinement per need. In terms of a Ti64 bar option, we have the following: